FEATURED ARTICLE – The Finnish Shingle Roof: The Tradition Lives On in Kesälahti

“It’s a jewel! Truly remarkable! There is no other roof like it in the country.” Olli Cavén, the conservator of Finland’s National Board of Antiquities, finds the Kesälahti bell tower’s shingle roof a wonderful example of the handicraft of traditional folk building. He also recognises the beauty of its intricate patterns.

The need for the restoration project of the Kesälahti shingle roof came to light in the early 2000s. The parish is a small community of two thousand people who didn’t have the means to repair the roof on their own. Would re-roofing with metal, or even abandoning the bell tower altogether, be their only choice?

The project began with preparing measurement drawings and compiling a building history report as well as a damage assessment report. The subsequent dendrochronological dating was done by researchers Margarita Kisternaya and Valery Kozlow of Petrozavodsk, from the Forest Research Institute of Karelian Research Centre of RAS (the Russian Academy of Sciences), using samples from the bell tower log frame and the shingles.

The roof turned out to be roughly 170 years old, one of the oldest in Finland. Roofs are generally a very visible element of wooden churches and bell towers, especially due to often being quite steep. The high surface of the roof was laid into regular patterns, which were created using carefully arranged shingles hewn into different shapes. The structure of the Kesälahti bell tower shingle roof, laid in the 1830s, consists of a layer of pine shingles, in some parts a double layer, over a birch-bark underlay which was originally placed only along the lower and upper edges of the roof.

The tradition of hand-hewn shingles and individually forged nails flourished in Finnish construction until the 20th century, when it was largely replaced by sawn shingles and factory-produced nails. Laying a shingle roof called for competent workmanship from its earliest stages, especially for a patterned roof of hand-hewn shingles of varying shapes. The complex shape of the bell towers and spires also presented its difficulties. The builders started out as only doing local work. By the 18th century, church builders are known to have formed professional working parties for mutual projects.

Architect Hannu Piipponen from The Regional Environment Centre dedicated himself to saving the Kesälahti bell tower. As the project leader, he prepared plans and funding applications. The process turned out to be both complex and fascinating.

The restoration work drew heavily from the original workmanship of the builders who had laid the roof. The goal of the project was a roof that matched the original, not only in form but also in quality. This meant the shingles would have to be hand-hewn. Piipponen hit upon the idea of combining the restoration project with restoration training. The local carpenters were instructed by the most skillful specialists in the country. Several participants earned their restoration degrees while working on the project. This was a successful solution not only for this project but brought later work possibilities for the workers, too.

The North-Karelian Regional Environment Centre started to work on the project “The Shingle Roof, Feasibility Study and Planning” in the autumn of 2004. The funding was provided by the Finnish government and the European Regional Development Fund.

The next stop involved seeking funding for a local cooperation project. COSCNTR signed on as a cooperation partner in the negotiations in Petrozavodsk, February 15th 2005. A project plan was put together according to the guidelines of the Euregio Karelia operational model, and a funding application was devised for the Shingle Carvers project.

The North-Karelian Regional Environment Centre granted the government funding for the project on January 1st 2006 and The Council of Oulu Region the Neighbourhood Programme funding from the European Regional Development Fund on March 9th 2006.

After the funding for the Shingle Carvers project had been confirmed the Kesälahti parish could start looking for timber for the shingles. The parish approached the European Regional Development Fund for the funding of the bell tower restoration project, and it was granted on February 24th 2006.

Unfortunately it was later discovered that the gathered funds were still not sufficient for successfully finishing such a vast project that relied on handicraft and expertise. The Regional Environment Centre began environmental work in the Kesälahti region, and the Central Karelia Employment and Economic Development Centre appointed four people to assist in the work for nearly six months. The Church Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland granted the Kesälahti parish 30, 000 euros for the bell tower restoration.

The Europa Nostra Awards, given each year in cooperation with the European Union, recognise cultural heritage projects, excellence in the restoration, repair, study and training related to cultural heritage and initiatives related to education, guidance and other service in the field.

The purpose of the award is to promote and celebrate professionalism in repairs and restoration work, as well as encourage international exchange of knowledge in cultural heritage. The exposure will hopefully lead to further projects and work in the protection of cultural heritage in Europe.

In 2009, 28 Europa Nostra Award winners were chosen from the 140 candidates. The Kesälahti shingle roof project was one of the winners, and was also honoured as one of the seven Grand Prix laureates.

Antti Pihkala

antti.pihkala@evl.fi

Kesälahti, elevations

Literature, project material:

Osmo Karttunen, Antti Pihkala, Hannu Piipponen. Kesälahden kellotapuli. The Kesalahti Church Bell Tower. Centre for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment, Joensuu, Finland 2010. (Finnish, English, Russian)

Exhibition, text and picture panels (Finnish, Russian; English abstract), Joensuu 2009. Inquiry: hannu.a.piipponen@gmail.com

Antti Pihkala. Paanukatot Suomen kirkoissa ja tapuleissa. Shingle roofs in Churches and Bell Towers in Finland. A study of the building history and restoration practices for shingle roofs from the middle ages to the present day. Oulu University 2009. (Finnish; English abstract)

BELGIUM – Seminars on Religion and Community 1750-2000

KADOC warmly invites you

“to the next seminar of this academic year in the multidisciplinary seminar series on Religion and Society since 1750.

Target group are researchers within and outside the KU Leuven.

 

Practical information

  • At least 4 x per university year
  • Venue: KADOC, Vlamingenstraat 39, 3000 Leuven
  • Thursday, 5-7 p.m.

Participation is free, but registration is compulsory (on the KADOC website, see: http://kadoc.kuleuven.be/eng/acti/stu/seminaries14_15.php ) because you will receive some preliminary reading after registration.

 

First seminar:

Thursday 20.11.2014

Laura Cerasi (Università degli Studi di Genova)

The “normality” of corporativism. Giuseppe Toniolo, on medieval corporations, catholic labourism, and State reform

 

Since his early studies on medieval Florence, the corporative framework of any society was, for Giuseppe Toniolo, its “normal” (as opposed to “pathological”) arrangement. It was so much so that Toniolo didn’t feel the need to theorize about corporativism in itself; but, especially in the sociological works published in the late 1890s and early 1900s, strongly inspired by Leone XXIII’s Rerum Novarum, the topic of a re-organization of contemporary industrial societies on the ground of a strong enhancement of both workers’ and employers’ trade unions was repeatedly addressed. It drove Toniolo to envisage a drastic and visionary State reform, in an anti-individualistic perspective, which apparently bore some similarity with the Corporative system established during the Fascist regime after 1926, but which radically diverged from it, in Toniolo’s view corporativism being essentially pluralistic. Instead, Toniolo’s projecs of State reform were quite advanced if compared with the contemporary Italian debate among left-wing and socialist reformist, and were linked with the international debate, to which Toniolo himself personally attended.”

 

For more information, see http://kadoc.kuleuven.be/nl/acti/stu/seminaries14_15.php

UK – How can disused historical churches be saved?

Inayat Omarji has led a project to turn a run-down church into a multi-purpose community centre

Inayat Omarji has led a project to turn a run-down church into a multi-purpose community centre

From the BBC news website:

“A charity charged with looking after disused churches is seeing its collection of beautiful, but high maintenance, buildings grow. In the face of funding cuts and rising costs, how can these churches be saved?

As a boy growing up in Bolton, Inayat Omarji watched a street parade with a “carnival atmosphere” outside his local Anglican church, but his overriding memory of All Souls is of a run-down, empty building in the middle of the bustling Muslim community.

All Souls is among hundreds of churches which have been closed by the Church of England as a result of declining congregations, population movement and other factors.”

Read the full article here.

NETHERLANDS – Cooks for churches

The Dutch province of Zeeuws-Vlaanderen boasts the highest number of Michelin restaurants of the Netherlands. It also has remarkable religious heritage buildings, which however are threatened with demolition. Two star cooks have now joined forces to protect this heritage.

The project “Koken voor Kerken” (“cooking for churches”) aims to show that this heritage can be used in new ways. On 11, 12 and 14 december 2014, the two cooks will be serving a three-couse dinner in the 10th-century Sint Baafskerk in Aardenburg. A part of the revenue will benefit the project. If this trial is succesful, similar projects will be launched in other churches in the region.

Read the full article in Dutch here.

 

CANADA – Explosive growth of new uses and demolitions

La chapelle des soeurs grises a été transformée en salle de lecture par l'université Concordia. Photo: Pedro Ruiz Le Devoir

La chapelle des soeurs grises a été transformée en salle de lecture par l’université Concordia. Photo: Pedro Ruiz Le Devoir

Quebec  - The number of religious heritage buildings (particularly churches) being transformed to suit new uses has grown exponentially over the past few years. Worryingly, more and more churches do not find a new use and are demolished. The Conseil du Patrimoine Religieux de Quebec signals an “unprecedented acceleration” of the phenomenon. By 2012, 270 churches had been closed, sold, transformed or demolished; two years later, this number has risen to 434.

From three buildings a year in the 1960, the phenomenon has touched 72 churches so far in 2014 alone.

Even more worryingly, the CPRQ now counts more buildings with no current nor future use (190) than buildings being transformed for new or extended uses (180).

Parmi les 190 sans avenir défini, 61 ont en fait été démolies, chiffre qui a doublé depuis 2012. Autre sujet de préoccupation, donc, d’autant plus que les démolitions volontaires l’emportent (42) haut la main contre les involontaires (12).Sept sont en voie d’être rasées.

 L’enquête détaille aussi les usages privilégiés pour les 180 cas de transformation (réalisées ou en cours). Les projets multifonctionnels l’emportent de loin (58), mettant fin au mythe persistant des églises devenues condos. « Clairement, l’avenir n’est pas là », tranche M. Boucher.

Read the full article in French here.